Alternative Energy, Energy

Green Crude


The global oil supply has been a topic of heated debate in recent years. On one hand, there is the concern that oil reserves are being depleted and we will be without a heavily relied on resource in the near future. On the other hand, there is the notion that we must continue to seek additional oil reserves and to refine every last drop from current ones. According to BP’s Statistical Review of World Energy, the global oil supply has increased since 2010. This statistics doesn’t amount to much, though, because “at today’s consumption rates, the world has proved reserves sufficient to meet current production for 54 years for oil.” (BP) The underlying issue of a dependency on a nonrenewable resource still remains. George W. Bush summed it up perfectly when he said, “America is addicted to oil.” The solution to this addiction isn’t to exhaust our efforts and bank accounts until we can deplete the last reserve, but rather to curb our dependency from a nonrenewable source to one that is more renewable and sustainable.

Sapphire Energy essentially mimics those natural processes that produced crude oil millions of years ago. This mimicry can occur in four different methods.At Sapphire Energy, numerous open algae ponds line the facility grounds. Algae absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide and through high temperatures and high pressures, oil is extracted. The chemical composition of algal oil is so similar to crude oil that it does not render existing infrastructure obsolete.

      Green Crude

Sapphire Energy is most recognized by the supportive role they played in Josh Tickell’s effort to educate the public about greener fuels. Josh Tickell is a proponent of alternative fuels, particularly in the transportation sector. He was first known for his nonprofit educational program, the Veggie Van Organization, as well as for his 2008 Sundance Film Festival award-winning documentary, Fuel (2008).


In his film, Tickell travelled across the globe in his van that ran off of fryer oil. He is more recently known for his modified Toyota Prius known as Algaeus. Algaeus is a hybrid that runs off of electricity and algal biofuel from Sapphire Energy. The vehicle made it from coast to coast on 25 gallons of algal biofuel, averaging about 52 mpg. Tickell’s modified Prius challenged the largest concern of alternative fuel based vehicles, short range anxiety.


There have been numerous analyses performed on the efficiency and feasibility of algal biofuel production. According to a study published in Bioresource Technology journal, carbon dioxide emissions from algae fuel were capable of being 50-70% lower than emissions from oil. As is often the case with renewable or alternative energies, there is no practicality involved. The United States Department of Energy determined that only 30,000 square kilometers, or an area about half of the state of South Carolina, would be required to replace petroleum in the United States. This seems like a substantial amount of land; however, a study conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Lab concluded that algal production could be implemented in 14% of the United States, or an area the size of Texas and New Mexico.

There are current policies in place that already acknowledge algae. Two said policies are the Department of Energy’s Biomass Program in 2010 and the Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP).

Algal biofuels are a seemingly appropriate alternative to our current fuel resources, so it doesn’t make sense as to why they haven’t been widely accepted. A few concerns that still remain revolve around cost and need for further research. Should we also be concerned about relying on particular strands of algae? Is it possible that these strands could eventually evolve and render the costly operation invalid? More importantly, will algal biofuels ever take off? Will these groundbreaking technologies and breakthroughs disappear like the EV did? Is it fair that the government is funding and supplementing algae programs and farmers? Should algae production be included in any other federal policies, such as the Clean Air Act or Clean Water Act?

Alternative Energy, Transportation

Cutting Carbon Emissions from Transportation – An Integrated Approach

Did you know the transportation sector comprises 28% of our energy consumption in the Unites States? With 93% of this consumption fueled by petroleum? See here. In addition, the transportation sector produces the largest carbon emissions based upon energy consumption by sector. A paper was recently published on how the carbon emissions from transportation could be lowered by 71% by 2050 and they took an integrated approach. The approach uses a combination of biofuel and electricity. Individually, biofuels are limited by issues such as land availability and electric cars can be limited by market adoption rates and issues such as range anxiety. But each of them make sense in different locations for various reasons: some areas are more conducive for biofuel production and some areas have already developed infrastructure for electric cars. The complimentary combination of the two can provide a large benefit (71% reduction) in a fairly short time frame (2050).

The Department of Energy continues to invest a significant amount of money in biofuel development and research into biofuel development continues to be very active, including at the University of Georgia.

UGA Bioconversion Center

The US government is specifically challenging themselves, the public, and car makers through a program called EV Everywhere, one of the Clean Energy Grand Challenges. Announced by President Obama in March 2012, the initiative focuses on the U.S. becoming the first nation in the world to produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles within the next 10 years. and according to a recent article, there have been increases in EV sales, although I would not say Tesla cars are affordable for the average family. But the Nissan Leaf certainly can be. Both federal and state incentives exist for the purchase of an EV and Nissan helps you find them.

While some consumers are still anxious about “range anxiety” (will I run out of charge before I get to my destination?), some car makers try to solve that with backup gasoline engines like the Chevy Volt and new BMW electric cars. And some  car shares (like this one in San Diego, photo below) use electric cars giving consumers an opportunity to try one out in the “real world” before they decide to make a purchase.

Electric Car Share in San Diego.
Photo: Jenna Jambeck


There are currently 12,344 alternative fueling stations in the USA. Have you been to an alternative fueling station? If so, how was it? Do you have any concerns with alternative fuels in vehicles or vehicles that run off of alternative fuels?

Electric fueling station for car share. San Diego, CA
Photo: Jenna Jambeck